Architectural features illustrated

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Creative Commons Licence [Some Rights Reserved]   Text © Copyright October 2021, Adrian S Pye; licensed for re-use under a Creative Commons Licence.
Images also under a similar Creative Commons Licence.


Balconet - A false balcony, or railing at the outer plane of a window.
J3374 : Balcony, St Stephen's, Millfield, Belfast by Albert Bridge J3374 : St Stephen's (CoI) parish church, Belfast by Albert Bridge SE2933 : Scottish Union and National Insurance Company building, Park Row, balcony detail by Alan Murray-Rust

Ball flower - An architectural ornament in the form of a ball inserted in the cup of a flower, from the latter part of the 13th, to its peak in the early part of the 14th century.
SO3080 : Clun, St George's Church: Cinquefoil-arched tomb recess with ball flower hoodmould 2 by Michael Garlick SK7624 : Church of St Egelwin, Scalford by Alan Murray-Rust

Baluster - A small moulded shaft, square or circular, in stone or wood, sometimes metal, supporting the coping of a parapet or the handrail of a staircase.
SX9473 : Steps to promenade, Teignmouth by Derek Harper SJ2360 : Baluster sundial in St Mary's churchyard Nerquis/Nercwys by John S Turner TF7329 : St Mary's church in Anmer - C18 baluster font by Evelyn Simak SJ2408 : All Saints, Buttington:  view from the porch by Chris Brown

Balustrade - A series of balusters supporting a handrail or coping is called a balustrade.
TQ8109 : Balusters of Linton Road bridge by Oast House Archive SO8844 : Balustrade and the Red Wing by Philip Halling SK6273 : Restored balustrade on Clumber Bridge by Graham Hogg NS5965 : Balustrade by Andy Farrington

Bargeboard - A board fastened to the projecting gables of a roof.
SX9064 : Houses, Torre by Derek Harper SX9064 : Houses on Tor Vale, Torquay by Derek Harper SO5140 : The Old House, High Town by Philip Halling SK5739 : The Cock & Hoop, High Pavement  detail by Alan Murray-Rust

Barrel Gable - A semi-circular portion of an end wall
SO6299 : Barrel gabled building by Philip Halling

Barrel vault - An architectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve (or pair of curves, in the case of a pointed barrel vault) along a given distance.
NJ6165 : Boyne Castle by valenta SP2429 : The Long Gallery, Chastleton House, Chastleton, Oxfordshire by Brian Robert Marshall NY3955 : The Barrel Vaulted Ceiling, Carlisle Cathedral by David Dixon ST9203 : St Mary's Tarrant Crawford by Nigel Mykura

Bartizan - An overhanging, wall-mounted turret projecting from the walls, usually at the corners, of medieval fortifications or churches.
NJ2660 : Coxton tower Bartizans by valenta NH7656 : Bartizan Fort George by valenta NJ6964 : Merchant's House, 1 High Shore by Anne Burgess NJ9406 : The Citadel by Bill Harrison

Basement - Lowest, subordinate storey of building often either entirely or partially below ground level; the lowest part of classical elevation
NS5262 : Crookston Castle: vaulted basement by Lairich Rig SZ3189 : Hurst Castle - Henrician keep interior - basement by Rob Farrow SO8844 : Basement room at Croome Court by Derek Harper SK9771 : Vaulted basement by Richard Croft

Basilica - a Roman, large roofed hall erected for transacting business and disposing of legal matters.; later the term came to describe an aisled building with a clerestory.
SJ5608 : Wroxeter Roman City - May 2018 (2) by The Carlisle Kid ST6550 : Downside Abbey by Tiger SK9771 : Roman Lincoln - Basilica by Ashley Dace

Batement Lights - The lights in the upper part of a perpendicular window, abated, or only half the width of those below.
SK9153 : Window s.V,  St Helen's church, Brant Broughton by Julian P Guffogg SK9153 : Window s.VI,  St Helen's church, Brant Broughton by Julian P Guffogg TQ8431 : East Window, St Mary's church, Rolvenden by Julian P Guffogg SK9136 : Church of St Wulfram, Grantham by Alan Murray-Rust

Batter (walls) - Upwardly receding slope of a wall or column.
TM0467 : St George's church in Wyverstone - view west by Evelyn Simak TM5286 : St Edmund's church in Kessingland - view east by Evelyn Simak TG2303 : St Edmund's church - view west by Evelyn Simak TM2260 : Cretingham St Peter's church, the chancel by Adrian S Pye

Battlement - a defensive low wall between chest-height and head-height in which rectangular gaps or indentations occur at intervals to allow for the discharge of arrows or other missiles
SX9164 : Language school, Torquay by Derek Harper TF2157 : Roof and battlements, Tattershall Castle by M J Roscoe SY2597 : Pavilion, Shute Barton by Derek Harper SP0102 : To the Battlements by Colin Smith

Bay window - is a window space projecting outward from the main walls of a building and forming a bay in a room and extending to the ground. (see Oriel)
TQ7468 : Rochester - bay window on Castle Hill by Dave Bevis NZ3669 : Curved Bay Windows, Collingwood Terrace, Tynemouth by Geoff Holland SJ8197 : Round window bay by Anthony O'Neil SJ7154 : Crewe - cafe bay window by Dave Bevis SS9746 : 'Bay Windows' by Neil Owen SE7135 : A house on Breighton Road, Gunby by Peter Church

Belfry - Chamber or stage in a tower where bells are hung. The term is also used to describe the manner in which bricks are laid in a wall so that they interlock.
SD7209 : St Peter's Parish Church, Bolton by David Dixon SD7209 : Bell, St Peter's Parish Church by David Dixon SO7433 : Shingled spire on a timber-framed belfry by Pauline E TM4988 : Bells in Rushmere St. Michaels church tower by Adrian S Pye

Bench table - Stone seat which runs round the walls of large churches, and sometimes round the piers; it very generally is placed in the porches.
SK9771 : Galilee Porch by Richard Croft SK6608 : Church of All Saints, Beeby by Alan Murray-Rust TL7404 : St Andrew, Sandon, Essex - Porch seats by John Salmon

Blind arcade - arcading applied to the surface of an otherwise blank wall.
TF0207 : Church of All Saints, Stamford by Alan Murray-Rust SP9001 : Gt. Missenden - SS Peter & Paul - Blind arcading by Rob Farrow TQ4282 : St Mary Magdalene, High Street South, East Ham - Blind arcade by John Salmon TL1998 : Peterborough Cathedral: blind arcade by Stephen Craven

Bond - Brickwork with overlapping bricks. Types of bond include stretcher, English, header, Flemish, garden wall, herringbone, basket, American, and Chinese.
TQ2679 : English bond brick detail by Oast House Archive TQ8209 : Header Bond in Old Town by Oast House Archive SO8642 : Flemish Bond brickwork by Philip Halling SO8953 : English garden wall bond by Philip Halling SK5025 : 1 Soar Lane, Sutton Bonington by Alan Murray-Rust&SK5722 : Detail of 23 Wymeswold Road by Alan Murray-Rust SO1091 : Fancy brickwork, Newtown by Penny Mayes TQ3182 : Peabody Buildings by David Williams TL8247 : Glemsford: Chinese bond on Hunts Hill by John Sutton&TQ2221 : Unusual brickwork by Andy Potter

Boss 2 - An ornamental projection, a carved keystone of a ribbed vault at the intersection of the ogives.
SX9292 : Becket Boss, Exeter Cathedral by Julian P Guffogg SP3127 : Boss of a sheep overpowering a wolf by Philip Halling SO3830 : Boss in Abbey Dore by Philip Halling TF9439 : All Saints' church in Wighton - mermaid roof boss by Evelyn Simak

Boutant - see flying buttress

Bracket (see also corbel) - Weight-bearing member made of wood, stone, or metal that overhangs a wall.
SP1114 : Northleach, St. Peter and St. Pauls' Church: Corbel bracket in the south porch by Michael Garlick SU5794 : Dorchester Abbey: The Monks' Corbel bracket reused in the c14th pillar 5 by Michael Garlick NS6065 : Former Blind Asylum sculpture at Glasgow Royal Infirmary by Thomas Nugent SK7929 : Church of St Denys, Eaton by Alan Murray-Rust

Bressummer - (literally "breast- beam") Large, horizontal beam supporting the wall above, especially in a jettied building.
TR3358 : 20, High Street by John Baker TG2309 : The Great Hospital - carriage passage by Evelyn Simak TR3358 : Sandwich, Strand Street by Helmut Zozmann SP7387 : Old Grammar School, Market Harborough by Andrew Abbott SK5361 : 72 West Gate, Mansfield by Alan Murray-Rust

Brise soleil - Projecting fins or canopies which shade windows from direct sunlight.
SH8380 : Marine and Built Environment Centre 2 by Jonathan Wilkins TQ2578 : Empress State Building, Lillie Road by Stephen Richards SH8077 : Welsh Government office 1 by Jonathan Wilkins SK9671 : Hayes Wharf, Lincoln by Oliver Mills

Broken Pediment - in classic architecture the triangular-shaped portion of the wall above the cornice which formed the termination of the roof behind it.
ST2885 : Arched entrance to the Stable Block at Tredegar House by Philip Halling SP5106 : Broken pediment, Bodleian New Library by Philip Halling TG2142 : Broken pediment, Cromer by Jim Osley TQ3279 : Detail of 142 Long Lane by Stephen Richards

Bullseye window - Can either mean a small oval window, or an early type of window glass.
NT4169 : 17th Century Bullseye by Anne Burgess SK7536 : Newbray House, Church Street by Alan Murray-Rust SE3033 : Yorkshire Building Society, Briggate by Alan Murray-Rust SD7109 : The Apple Tree, Bradshawgate  by Alan Murray-Rust

Bulwark - Barricade of beams and soil used in 15th- and 16th-century fortifications designed to mount artillery. Figuratively it means anything serving as a defence.
SZ7799 : Ella Nore - Barricade at entrance to Snowhill Creek by Rob Farrow SZ7799 : Wooden barricade near Ella Nore by Rob Farrow

Buttress - Vertical member projecting from a wall to stabilize it or to resist the lateral thrust of an arch, roof, or vault. (see also flying buttress)
SO8454 : Buttressed wall outside the Diglis Hotel by Stephen Craven ST5561 : The buttresses on the north side of St Andrew's church by Neil Owen SX7573 : Stop butt, Rippon Tor rifle range by Derek Harper SO8543 : Buttresses, Severn Stoke church  by Philip Halling


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