Bench Mark :: Shared Description

Bench marks were historically used to record the height above sea level of a location as surveyed against the Mean Sea Level data (taken at Clarendon Dock, Belfast, for Northern Ireland data, Newlyn in Cornwall for data in Great Britain and Portmoor Pier, Malin Head, for data relating to the Republic of Ireland). They were used as part of a greater surveying network by the UK Ordnance Survey, Ordnance Survey Northern Ireland (OSNI) and the Ordnance Survey Ireland (OSI). If the exact height of one bench mark is known then the exact height of the next can be found by measuring the difference in heights, through a process of spirit levelling. In this way hundreds of thousands of bench marks were sited all around the UK & Ireland from the mid 19th to late 20th centuries. There are several distinct types of bench mark:

- Fundamental bench marks have been constructed at selected sites where foundations can be set on stable strata such as bedrock. Each FBM consists of a buried chamber with a brass bolt set in the top of a granite pillar. See NG8825 : Dornie fundamental bench mark for an example. FBMs were used in Ireland as well as GB but those in Ireland do not have any surface markers, nor are they marked on standard maps.
- Flush brackets consist of metal plates about 90 mm wide and 175 mm long. Each bracket has a unique serial number. They are most commonly found on most Triangulation Pillars, some churches or on other important civic buildings. See J3270 : Flush Bracket, Belfast for an example.
- Cut bench marks are the commonest form of mark. They consist of a horizontal bar cut into a wall or brickwork and are found just about anywhere. A broad arrow is cut immediately below the centre of the horizontal bar. See J3372 : Bench Mark, Belfast for an example. The horizontal mark may be replaced by or contain a bolt - see J1486 : Bench Mark, Antrim.
Other marks include:
- Projecting bench marks such as SD8072 : Projecting Bracket Benchmark on St Oswald's Tower
- Bolt bench marks such as SJ1888 : OSBM bolt on Hilbre Island
- Rivet bench marks such as J3978 : Bench Mark, Holywood
- Pivot bench marks such as SJ2661 : Pivot bench mark on Leeswood Bridge

Bench marks are commonly found on older buildings or other semi-permanent features such as stone bridges or walls. Due to updated mapping techniques and technological advances such as GPS, bench marks are no longer maintained. Many are still in existence and the markers will probably remain until they are eventually destroyed by redevelopment or erosion.
by Rossographer
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3158 images use this description. Preview sample shown below:

SK3927 : Bench mark, churchyard wall, Weston-on-Trent by Alan Murray-Rust
SK5542 : Bench mark, Western Boulevard by Alan Murray-Rust
SO7993 : OS benchmark - Claverley, wall on Pound St by Richard Law
SK7046 : Bench mark with bolt, St Helen's Church, Kneeton by Alan Murray-Rust
SJ9308 : OS benchmark - Calf Heath, Queens Road bridge by Richard Law
NT2775 : Bench mark in colourful surroundings, St Andrew's Church, Leith by Alan Murray-Rust
SJ7419 : OS benchmark - Newport, canal bridge, Lower Bar by Richard Law
SK5438 : Bench mark, Derby Road near QMC by Alan Murray-Rust
SK6429 : Bench Mark, bridge at Widmerpool Station by Alan Murray-Rust
J5082 : Bench Mark, Bangor by Rossographer
SK9401 : Bench mark, St Mary's Church, South Luffenham by Alan Murray-Rust
SK5934 : Bench Mark, Melton Rd railway bridge, Tollerton by Alan Murray-Rust
NN6677 : Flush Bracket on the summit by Richard Law
NS3782 : Possible bench mark on old drinking trough by Lairich Rig
SK6023 : Flush bracket bench mark, Brook Street, Wymeswold by Alan Murray-Rust
J2725 : Bench Mark near Spelga Dam by Rossographer
J3573 : Bench Mark, Belfast by Rossographer
SO6294 : OS benchmark - Lower Monkhall barn by Richard Law
SK0580 : Flush Bracket S4463 by Gerald England
NU1301 : Bench mark, St Mary's Church, Longframlington by Alan Murray-Rust
SK3745 : Bench mark, Horsley Road, Kilburn by Alan Murray-Rust
SK0002 : OS benchmark - Blakenhall Heath, 136 Valley Road by Richard Law
SJ9173 : Bench mark and bolt, Christ Church Macclesfield by Alan Murray-Rust
SS2409 : Flush Bracket on Collaton Trig by Richard Law
SJ8807 : OS benchmark - Chillington, Upper Avenue gateway by Richard Law

... and 3133 more images.

These Shared Descriptions are common to multiple images. For example, you can create a generic description for an object shown in a photo, and reuse the description on all photos of the object. All descriptions are public and shared between contributors, i.e. you can reuse a description created by others, just as they can use yours.
Created: Tue, 2 Mar 2010, Updated: Tue, 14 Jun 2016

The 'Shared Description' text on this page is Copyright 2010 Rossographer, however it is specifically licensed so that contributors can reuse it on their own images without restriction.

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